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Metrosideros excelsa, commonly known as Pohutukawa or New Zealand Christmas Tree, is a magnificent evergreen tree native to New Zealand. 





  • Appearance: Pohutukawa is a large tree that can reach heights of up to 20 meters or more. It has a spreading canopy with dark green, leathery leaves that are elliptical or lance-shaped, measuring around 2-7 cm in length.
  • Flowers: One of its most striking features is its vibrant crimson-red flowers, which bloom in dense clusters during late spring and early summer in the Southern Hemisphere (December-January), coinciding with the Christmas season, hence its nickname "New Zealand Christmas Tree." The flowers are rich in nectar, attracting birds and pollinators.
  • Bark: The bark of mature Pohutukawa trees is rugged, dark brown, and deeply fissured, adding to its ornamental appeal.


Growing Conditions: 


  • Climate: Pohutukawa thrives in coastal regions with mild temperatures. It prefers a Mediterranean or subtropical climate with mild, frost-free winters and warm summers. While it can tolerate some frost once established, protection from severe cold is advisable, especially for young trees.
  • Sunlight: This tree prefers full sun but can tolerate partial shade. Adequate sunlight is essential for optimal flowering and growth.
  • Soil: Well-drained soil is crucial for Pohutukawa. It can grow in a variety of soil types, including sandy, loamy, or clay soils, as long as they are well-draining. It prefers slightly acidic to neutral soil pH.
  • Watering: While Pohutukawa is drought-tolerant once established, regular watering is essential, especially during dry periods or when the tree is young and establishing its root system. However, it's important to avoid waterlogging, as overly wet soil can lead to root rot.
  • Wind Protection: Given its natural habitat along coastal areas, Pohutukawa is adapted to withstand strong winds. However, providing some wind protection, especially for young trees, can help prevent damage to branches and promote healthy growth.
  • Pruning: Minimal pruning is usually required for Pohutukawa trees. Remove dead or damaged branches as needed, and prune for shape or size control if desired. Pruning is best done after flowering.


Pohutukawa is not only valued for its stunning ornamental display but also for its resilience and significance in Maori culture. It's a symbol of strength, endurance, and the spirit of Aotearoa (New Zealand), making it a cherished native tree. With the right growing conditions, Pohutukawa can thrive and become a majestic centerpiece in coastal gardens or landscapes.

Metrosideros excelsa Pohutakawa

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