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Blechnum novae-zelandiae, commonly known as Kiokio or New Zealand Water Fern, is a native fern species found in New Zealand and is known for its lush, green fronds and adaptability to various growing conditions. 



  • Fronds: Kiokio has large, arching fronds that can grow up to 1.5 meters in length. The fronds are pinnate, meaning they are divided into multiple leaflets along a central axis. The leaflets are lance-shaped and have a glossy, dark green color.
  • Texture: The fronds of Blechnum novae-zelandiae have a leathery texture, which helps them withstand environmental conditions and makes them attractive for various garden settings.


Growing Conditions:


  • Light: Blechnum novae-zelandiae prefers shaded to partially shaded locations. It thrives in areas with filtered or dappled sunlight, making it suitable for growing in shaded garden beds or under the canopy of trees.
  • Soil: This fern prefers well-draining, humus-rich soil. It can grow in a variety of soil types, including loamy or sandy soils.
  • Watering: Kiokio prefers consistent moisture and can tolerate damp conditions. Regular watering is essential, especially during dry spells or in hot weather.
  • Temperature: This fern is well-adapted to temperate climates and can tolerate light frosts. It is not suitable for extremely cold or freezing temperatures.
  • Maintenance: Blechnum novae-zelandiae is a low-maintenance fern. Remove any dead or damaged fronds as needed to maintain its appearance.


Kiokio is a popular fern in New Zealand gardens and landscaping projects due to its lush, green foliage and adaptability to shaded areas. It adds a natural and tropical touch to garden landscapes, making it an excellent choice for creating green focal points or for use as an understory plant in shaded areas. As a native New Zealand plant, it also provides habitat and food sources for local wildlife, contributing to the ecological balance in the area where it grows. Additionally, ferns like Blechnum novae-zelandiae play an essential role in maintaining healthy ecosystems by improving soil health and water retention.


Blechnum novae-zelandiae (kiokio)

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